1. Browsers Browsers make transmitting a message to our audience much easier. They play interpreters' part on the web. Browsers ask users to use that information in a format that our eyes can perceive and make sense of that information.
- Google Chrome: One of the Google products, Google Chrome is one of the most popular browsers today.
- Safari: Safari is exclusive to Apple devices because it itself is an Apple product.
- Firefox: This open-source and free web browser uses the Gecko layout.
- Internet Explorer: Microsoft has replaced Internet Explorer with Microsoft Edge now and requested its users to migrate to the same.
2. HTML Hypertext Markup Language or HTML, is a markup language that is an essential part of building and developing a website. HTML is what describes the structure of the website and its elements. Web browsers know what to show because of HTML.
3. CSS Cascading Style Sheets, CSS, is another important part of building and developing websites. It is an HTML tool that works on providing the layout and presentation of a website. With CSS, one can define how the web pages will look. It also helps the web page to load faster.
- LESS: A pre-processor of CSS, with LESS working with CSS becomes easier with functionalities.
- SASS: A pre-processor of CSS that extends the CSS capabilities with unique features.
4. Programming Languages The backend development of the websites always requires a programming language. A programming language is what makes the website work well with various other tools and technologies like web servers, frameworks, etc. Not every programming language is suitable for all kinds of website building.
- PHP: Mostly used to create interactive and dynamic web pages in WordPress.
5. Frameworks Web frameworks support web application development and make it easier to build and work with programming languages. With frameworks, developers can develop websites at a faster speed, because it allows the developers to use pre-written templates or tools. Frameworks also help the developers with reliability because ready-made components are often tested before.
- Bootstrap: Helpful in building responsive website designs faster, and is efficient.
- WordPress: Started as a blogging platform, WordPress today is a Content Management System built on PHP.
- Drupal: Another open-source framework, Drupal is built using PHP. Drupal however needs more technical skills.
- Angular.js: This is a front-end framework for building mobile and desktop web applications
6. Libraries Libraries make the process of coding easier by allowing developers to use a group of code snippets, which the developers don’t have to write by themselves. Developers use libraries to create web pages that use UI components, language utilities, math functions, and more.
7. Databases For building a well-functioning, interactive website, a Database is very important. Database designing is important in web development before the actual coding starts rather than later. The database is where we store all our data - starting from images, word contents to various types of information and page layouts.
- MySQL: MySQL is an open-sourced database used for building WordPress websites often.
- SQL Server: SQL Server is a Microsoft product that provides fast and reliable storage.
- MongoDB: MongoDB is the most common database known to modern apps.
- PostgreSQL: PostgreSQL is known to be a powerful and advanced database.
8. Client (or Client-Side) A client is a user who is using an application. But it is not literally a human, but a device, like a laptop, desktop, tablet or a mobile device. At once, there can be multiple clients interacting with a single application that is stored on a server.
9. Server (or Server-Side) Clients use applications and make a request, and servers are the ones that find all the requested information and respond to the clients. Servers are where application codes are stored. Web servers find the requested web content and use HTTP to respond to the clients.
11. Back-end The back-end part is on the server-side, which stores and arranges data. This part of the website is not for users to see or understand. The back-end development ensures the front-end part on the client’s side is functioning well.
12. Protocols The internet uses protocols to transfer data across the internet without which the internet cannot function properly. The protocols are a set of standards to enable the connection, communication and transfer of data between two sides of the network. There are different protocols available.
- HTTP: HTTP is through which the website gets into a browser, and this protocol requests the site from the servers.
- DDP: DDP is a new protocol that creates a connection between the clients and the server using WebSockets.
- REST: Web developers use this protocol for API.
13. API We specialize in developing stable, well-documented, and easy-to-use APIs. APIs radically change the way data is used and offer completely new business models and product strategies. They enable flexible integration enabling us to expand and improve new and unique offerings.
14. Data Formats Data can be of various size and types- numerical, text, multimedia, etc. Depending on a different format, the data is coded in different ways. When you choose a data format, it should be thoughtful because in future it will affect the readability of the data.
- JSON: JSON is one of the common data formats today, which is a text-based representation of structured data.
- XML: XML was very common earlier as the mainstream data format.
- CSV: This type of data format is often seen in excel sheets, where data is separated by a comma.